Minks v. Polaris (Fed. Cir. 2008)
Floyd Minks won a jury verdict of $1.3 million based on a judgment of infringement by Polaris. The district court slashed that award by 95% -- finding that Minks was adequately compensated by $27,000 in damages and $117,000 in attorney fees and an extra $27,000 for willfulness. On appeal, the Federal Circuit vacated the reduction in damages based on a procedural issue.
As a safety device, many all-terrain vehicles (ATVs) include a reverse-direction governor to prevent operating the vehicle at high speeds while driving backwards. The Minks patent covers a particular type of electronic governor to accomplish this goal.
Through his company, Minks Engineering, Minks designed the electronic governor for Polaris and also patented the design. Later, Polaris found a cheaper vender with a redesigned governor. At that point, Minks sued for infringement.
After the $1.3 million dollar verdict, the district court granted the Polaris motion for a reduction of the damage award "as a matter of law" under Fed. R. Civ. Pro. 50.
In the appeal, the Federal Circuit agreed that some reduction may be proper. However, the appellate panel held the Seventh Amendment of the US Constitution requires that a new trial on damages as a prerequisite to any reduction.
"The issue before us on appeal is whether the Seventh Amendment required the district court to offer Minks the option of a new trial in lieu of accepting the reduced damages award"
The fact-law distinction found throughout patent law is important because of Seventh Amendment's high regard for factual decisions by a jury. The "reexamination clause" of the Seventh Amendment reads as follows: "no fact tried by a jury, shall be otherwise re-examined in any Court of the United States, than according to the rules of common law." Here, the damage amount is a factual inquiry, and the Seventh Amendment has been interpreted to usually require that a district court offer a new trial on damages as an option when considering setting aside an excessive jury award.
The Eleventh Circuit (where this case arose) allows a judge to reduce a jury verdict without offering a new trial in the limited case where the error was a "legal error" as opposed to an error in adjudging a factual issue. Here, however, the error was in the jury's determination of the number of infringing sales, royalty base, and royalty rate – all factual issues.
"A comparison of the Georgia-Pacific factors and the standard of a hypothetical negotiation to the evidence of record in this case makes clear that the district court's reduction of compensatory damages necessarily amounted to an assessment of the sufficiency of the evidence, and as such, the option of a new trial was required."
This case is in tension with Tronzo v. Biomet (Fed. Cir. 2001). In that opinion, the Federal Circuit agreed that a new trial was not necessary even though the district court had reduced compensatory damages from seven million dollars to only five hundred dollars. The distinction may be that in Tronzo, the reduction was a legal issue because the patentee had presented no credible damages evidence. Here Minks presented at least "limited evidence" of damages.
Vacated and remanded for a new trial on damages.