- Only 3.8% of varieties available in 2004 were ever subject to protection under patent law or the Plant Variety Protection Act (PVPA);
- More than 16% of all vegetable varieties that have ever been patented were commercially available in 2004; and
- In 2004, approximately 4.5% of protected, or once protected, varieties consisted of inventions that were at least twenty years old.
Read the paper here.
In an earlier paper, the pair showed that vegetable crop diversity increased in the past century -- a finding that cuts against conventional wisdom in the field. Read that paper here.