By Dennis Crouch
Kirtsaeng v. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. (Supreme Court 2012)
Oral arguments are being held this morning in the Kirtsaeng copyright case involving international exhaustion. The case has direct implications on international patent law considerations.
Kirstaeng purchased legitimate copies of Wiley textbooks in various foreign countries and then imported those into the US for resale. The international versions of the textbooks vary somewhat from the US version (e.g., the foreign version covers evolution and is printed on cheaper paper). However, Kirtsaeng was able to find a substantial US market for the books and used the revenue to fund his own education. Copyright includes the exclusive right of distribution, and resale of a product is typically seen as a form of distribution. 17 U.S.C. 106. A separate provision also bars importation of copyrighted works without permission of the copyright holder. 17 U.S.C. 602(a)(1). However, the copyright statute also includes an exception known as copyright exhaustion or the first sale doctrine. 17 U.S.C. 109. The statute provides:
[T]he owner of a particular copy … lawfully made under this title … is entitled, without the authority of the copyright owner, to sell or otherwise dispose of the possession of that copy.
Patent law has an equivalent doctrine. Notably, however, the patent law doctrine of exhaustion is not bound by any statute but does stem from parallel common law origins. The exhaustion doctrine allows for a robust secondary market for goods.
In this case, Wiley wants to use its US copyrights to block Kirtsaeng from reselling his books. Kirtsaeng argues that he purchased non-counterfeit authorized copies of the books and that Wiley's copyrights are therefore exhausted. Wiley, in turn, focuses on the statute and argues that the US copyright is not exhausted because the foreign-made books were not "lawfully made under this title" where "this title" refers to the US Copyright Act. In its appellate decision, the Second Circuit agreed with Wiley and held that the foreign sale did not trigger the Section 109 exception. The decision supports a notion of country-by-country price discrimination of works protected by copyright (or patent). Unfortunately for US consumers, the price of these goods is typically higher in the US than abroad. In addition to price discrimination, the law is also being used to control access to goods in various countries. In many cases, these ideas have been implemented as mechanisms for preventing important of goods that do not – at first glance – appear to be protected by intellectual property. In the Supreme Court cases of Costco v. Omega and Quality King Distribs., Inc. v. L'anza Research Int'l, Inc., 523 U.S. 135 (1998), the asserted copyrights were unrelated to the value of the product being sold. In Costco, the protected copyright was a small symbol on the under-side of the watch while in Quality King, the protected copyright was the shampoo bottle label. (On remand, the district court dismissed Omega's action on the ground of copyright misuse.)
The Supreme Court is hearing oral arguments in the case this morning. In 2010 the court heard Costco v. Omega. In that case, however, the court was deadlocked 4-4 (thus affirming the copyright holder's position). The ninth justice that will sit on this case is Justice Kagen who had recused herself in 2010 – apparently after working on the case as Solicitor General. In her absence, the DOJ has supported the copyright holders in arguing against international exhaustion.
In my view, Wiley likely has the better argument based on a straight reading of the statute. However, the implementation of Section 109 was largely a codification of the 1908 Supreme Court decision in Bobbs-Merrill Co v. Straus. And, it appears that international copyright exhaustion was on the mind of Congress at that time. Further, we already know that if the text of the statute is construed as copyright holders suggest, then the statute does not entirely define the scope of exhaustion. For instance, authorized sales within the US are seen as exhausting the copyright even if the work was not "lawfully made" in the US. In my mind, this opens the door to a potential atextual expansion of the exhaustion doctrine.
There are several interesting briefs filed in the case. The IPO, AIPLA, ABA all support the copyright holders rights to block importation of goods that the copyright holder sold abroad. For the most part, these organizations say that their arguments are "limited to the Copyright Act" and should not be read into "other fields, such as trademark and patent law" which "involve distinct statutory schemes and implicate separate policy concerns."
A group of law professors led by Jason Shultz filed an amicus brief and argues that the Wiley's argument "runs contrary to the statutory context in which § 109(a) appears, the common-law backdrop against which Congress legislated, and analogous principles of patent law as well." Federal Circuit precedent on the topic runs parallel to the Wiley decision finding no international exhaustion. See Jazz Photo Corp. v. Int'l Trade Comm'n, 264 F.3d 1094 (Fed. Cir. 2001) and Fuji Photo Film Co. v. Jazz Photo Corp., 394 F.3d 1368 (Fed. Cir. 2005). Interestingly, the brief rejects the Jazz Photo cases as against the weight of past and present Supreme Court precedent on the topic.
Mark Lemley filed a brief on behalf of Powell Books, et al. that runs in parallel with a brief filed by a group of art museums. Both briefs argue that their respective operations (selling used books and showing artwork) have long relied upon international exhaustion. If copyrights are not so exhausted, both business models will suffer greatly.
- Read the briefs here: http://www.scotusblog.com/case-files/cases/kirtsaeng-v-john-wiley-sons-inc/
- The Supreme Court is hearing the Bowman v. Monsanto exhaustion case later this year. This case may offer some signaling as to how that case will turn out.