By Dennis Crouch
Association for Molecular Pathology v. Myriad Genetics, 12-398 (Supreme Court 2013) oral argument transcript.
The Supreme Court held oral arguments today in the much watched Gene patent case pending before the US Supreme Court. Myriad Genetics and the University of Utah own several patents covering particular isolated human genes, seemingly man-made complementary DNA that mimics the natural DNA sequence, methods for obtaining the DNA, and methods for using the DNA to test for disease. The major breakthrough made by the Myriad Scientists was to discover the naturally occurring sequence of DNA that codes for early-onset breast cancer. These are the so-called BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes. This was a huge breakthrough and has been applied to save many lives. However, historic patent law is clear that the mere information discovered is not patentable. That information could be classified as both a natural phenomenon and an abstract idea—both of which lack patent eligibility. So, instead of patenting the information, the researchers applied molecular biology tools (conventional at the time) to isolate the DNA, and create cDNA. It was those structures and methods that Myriad patented, although the innovative heart of each patent claim remained the particular unpatentable genetic sequence. A group of public-minded researchers and groups challenged the patents. Arguing on their behalf is Chris Hansen of the ACLU. Myriad called patent law expert Greg Castanias for its arguments. And, acting as amicus curae, Donald Verrilli argued on behalf of the US Government.
My take is that the court is likely to find cDNA patentable because of the man-made nature of the molecule and hold that purely isolated molecules will only be patentable if their function is significantly altered because of the isolation. This result depends upon the court buying Myriad's argument that cDNA is the equivalent of recombinant DNA whose sequence is designed by the inventors. One risk of the decision for patentees is that the court appears poised to place additional weight on the obviousness analysis. Here, it is also clear that the court does not trust the USPTO to make these determinations. As Justice Kagan mentioned "the PTO seems very patent happy".
AMP's attorney Chris Hansen began his argument with the strongest possible approach – arguing that Myriad's recognition that the BRCA genes "correlate with an increased risk of breast or ovarian cancer . . . [was] made by nature . . . [and] Myriad does not deserve a patent for it." Mr. Castanias disagreed – "What Myriad inventors created in this circumstance was a new molecule that had never before been known to the world."
A first focus of the argument was on whether the isolated DNA has a new function – different from that found in the human body.
JUSTICE ALITO: Isolated DNA has a very different function from the DNA as it exists in nature. And although the chemical composition may not be different, it -- it certainly is in a different form. So what is the distinction?
MR. HANSEN: Well, I don't think it has a new function, Your Honor, with respect. I believe that what -- Myriad has proffered essentially three functions for the DNA outside the body as opposed to inside the body. The first is we can look at it. And that's true, but that's not really a new function. That's simply the nature of when you extract something you can look at it better.
The second two rationales that Myriad has proffered are that it can be used as probes and primers. Three of the lower court judges found that full-length DNA, which all of these patent claims include, cannot be used as probes and primers. But more important, finding a new use for a product of nature, if you don't change the product of nature, is not patentable. If I find a new way of taking gold and making earrings out of it, that doesn't entitle me to a patent on gold. If I find a new way of using lead, it doesn't entitle me to a patent on lead.
As I mentioned, everyone recognizes that Myriad made a major advance in our understanding of human genetics. The focused then turned to how Myriad should be rewarded.
JUSTICE KAGAN: Mr. Hansen, could you tell me what you think the incentives are for a company to do what Myriad did? If you assume that it takes a lot of work and takes a lot of investment to identify this gene, but the gene is not changed in composition, and what you just said is that discovering uses for that gene would not be patentable even if those new -- even if those uses are new, what does Myriad get out of this deal? Why shouldn't we worry that Myriad or companies like it will just say, well, you know, we're not going to do this work anymore?
MR. HANSEN: Well, we know that would not have happened in this particular case, Your Honor. We know that there were other labs looking for the BRCA genes and they had announced that they would not patent them if they were the first to find it. We also know that prior to the patent actually being issued, there were other labs doing BRCA testing and Myriad shut all that testing down. So we know in this particular case that problem would not have arisen.
But the point of the whole -- the whole point of the product of nature doctrine is that when you lock up a product of nature, it prevents industry from innovating and -- and making new discoveries. That's the reason we have the product of nature doctrine, is because there may be a million things you can do with the BRCA gene, but nobody but Myriad is allowed to look at it and that is impeding science rather than advancing it.
MR. HANSEN: [Further], taxpayers paid for much of the investment in Myriad's work. I [also] think you get enormous recognition.
SCALIA: Well, that's lovely.
MR. HANSEN: But I think that we know that that's sufficient. We know it's sufficient with respect to these two genes. We also know it's sufficient with respect to the human genome.
JUSTICE KENNEDY: But I just don't think we can decide the case on the ground, oh, don't worry about investment, it'll come. I just don't think we can do that.
The patented cDNA is not found in the human body, but instead was manufactured by the researchers by using a discovered enzyme to convert mRNA created in the body back in to the more stable DNA form.
JUSTICE SOTOMAYOR: [cDNA] is artificially created in the laboratory, so it's not bound in nature. It's not taking a gene and snipping something that's in nature. And yet you claim that can't be patented. The introns are taken out, the exons are left in, and they're sequenced together. Give me your brief argument on that. I read your brief, but it is not a product of nature; it's a product of human invention.
MR. HANSEN: There are two big differences between cDNA and DNA. The first is exactly the one Your Honor just discussed, which is that the introns, the noncoding regions, have been removed. That is done in the body, by the body. That's done in the process of DNA going to mRNA. What the scientist does who's creating the cDNA is they take the mRNA out of the body and then they simply have the natural nature-driven nucleotide binding processes complement the mRNA. So that if the mRNA has a C, the scientist just puts the corresponding nucleotide in there and nature causes them to bind up. The scientist does not decide -
JUSTICE BREYER: I know, but I don't see the answer, because I gather, if I -- if I've read it correctly, that when you have an R -- the messenger RNA does not have the same base pairs. There's a U or something instead of an A or whatever it is.
MR. HANSEN: Yes.
JUSTICE BREYER: So when you actually look, if you could get a super-microscope and look at what they have with the cDNA, with their cDNA, you would discover something with an A, not a U. Is it AU? Is that the one?
MR. HANSEN: Yes.
JUSTICE BREYER: Okay. Okay. So -- so you would discover something with an A there, you see, and you wouldn't discover something with a U there. And there is no such thing in nature as the no-introns AGG, whatever, okay? It's not there. That's not truly isolated DNA. But you can go look up the Amazon, wherever you want. Hence the question. Now, on that one, how? How is that found in nature? The answer is it isn't.
MR. HANSEN: Well, but I would suggest, Your Honor, that the question is not whether it is identical to something in nature. The question is whether there was a human invention involved, whether it is markedly different from what is found in nature.
JUSTICE SOTOMAYOR: But that goes to obviousness. That does not in my mind go to the issue of whether it's patent eligible. You may have a very strong argument on obviousness, but why does it not -it's creating something that's not found in nature at all.
. . . CHIEF JUSTICE ROBERTS: But I -- I thought the basic general approach here was we have a very expansive view of what is patent eligible and then we narrow things through things -- issues like obviousness and so on. Why -- wouldn't it make more sense to address the questions at issue here in the obviousness realm?
. . . . JUSTICE ALITO: This case has been structured in an effort to get us to decide this on the broadest possible ground . . . it's just about 101, it's not about any other provision of the Patent Act. Why should we do that?
. . . . JUSTICE BREYER: Ah. Then -- then watch what you're doing. That's very, very interesting, because, really, we are reducing, then, 101 to anything under the sun, and -- and that, it seems to me, we've rejected more often than we've followed it.
As it should, the discussion eventually worked its way to the patenting of ideas.
JUSTICE SOTOMAYOR: That's a failure of the patent law. It doesn't patent ideas.
MR. HANSEN: And it shouldn't patent ideas, and -- but it also makes the point that isolated gene and the gene in the body are the same.
. . .
GENERAL VERRILLI: The claim that isolated DNA is a human invention rests entirely on the fact that it is no longer connected at the molecular level to what surrounded it in the body. But allowing a patent on that basis would effectively preempt anyone else from using the gene itself for any medical or scientific purpose. That is not true about a patent on cDNA. A patent on cDNA leaves the isolated DNA available for other scientists and other -- and others in the medical profession to try to generate new uses. . . . [T]he position of the United States is that [as a conceptual matter] cDNA is patent eligible.
. . .
JUSTICE KAGAN: The first person who found a chromosome and isolated it, I think we can all say that that was a very useful discovery. And the question is, can you then -- can the person who found that chromosome and isolated it from the body, could they have gone to the PTO?
A decision in the case is expected in June.